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Impact Factor

Impact factor (IF) is a measure for the reflecting average number of citations to the recent articles published in other journals. Journal Impact Factor is from Journal Citation Report (JCR), a product of Thomson ISI (Institute for Scientific Information). JCR provides quantitative tools for evaluating journals. The impact factor is one of these; it is a measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a given period of time. The impact factor for a journal is calculated based on a three-year period, and can be considered to be the average number of times published papers are cited up to two years after publication.

Ex:

The impact factor 2012 for a journal would be calculated as follows:

A = the number of times articles published in 2010-2011 were cited in indexed journals during 2012

B = the number of articles, reviews, proceedings or notes published in 2010-2011

Impact factor (IF) 2012 = A/B

The impact factor 2011 will be actually published in 2012, because it could not be calculated until all of the 2011 publications had been received. Impact factor 2012 will be published in 2013

Validity:

IF is highly discipline-dependent. The % of total citations occurring in the first two years after publication varies highly among disciplines from 1-3 percent in the mathematical and physical sciences to 5-8 percent in the biological sciences.

IF could not be reproduced in an independent audit.

IF refers to the average number of citations per paper, but this is not a normal distribution. It is rather a Bradford distribution, as predicted by theory. Being an arithmetic mean, the impact factor therefore is not a valid representation of this distribution and unfit for citation evaluation.

Journal ranking lists constructed based on the expert survey .

Journals may publish a larger percentage of review articles which generally are cited more than research reports. Therefore review articles can raise the impact factor of the journal and review journals will therefore often have the highest impact factors in their respective fields. Conversely, journals may choose not to publish minor articles, such as case reports in medical journals, which are unlikely to be cited and would reduce the average citation per article.

Journals may change the fraction of "citable items" compared to front-matter in the denominator of the IF equation. Which types of articles are considered "citable" is largely a matter of negotiation between journals and Thomson Scientific. As a result of such negotiations, impact factor variations of more than 300% have been observed. For instance, editorials in a journal are not considered to be citable items and therefore do not enter into the denominator of the impact factor. However, citations to such items will still enter into the numerator, thereby inflating the impact factor. In addition, if such items cite other articles (often even from the same journal), those citations will be counted and will increase the citation count for the cited journal. This effect is hard to evaluate, for the distinction between editorial comment and short original articles is not always obvious. "Letters to the editor" might refer to either class.

Journals may publish a large fraction of their papers, or preferentially papers which they expect to be highly cited, early in the calendar year. This gives those papers more time to gather citations.

Several methods, not necessarily with nefarious intent, exist for a journal to cite articles in the same journal which will increase the journal's impact factor.

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